Hip pain causes discomfort, making practically everything you do–sitting, standing, even sleeping uncomfortable. When your hip hurts, there is often a good reason. It is the largest joint in your body and is responsible for supporting your entire weight when you stand or sit, as well as allowing you to move freely from side to side, rotate and bend at this joint. Additionally, the hip also allows for movement of the upper leg and lower leg together in order for you to walk or run. Like I said, lots of responsibility.
Because the hip is a very complex joint with many different functions, there are many different ways it can be injured. Muscles can become tight, ligaments and tendons can become injured or inflamed, or arthritis can form in the joint, causing pain and a restricted range of motion. The difficult part is figuring out the correct diagnosis due to overlapping symptoms.
So what are your options for relieving your pain? Let’s start with the most common soft tissue conditions and move on to more complex reasons.
This is one of the most common soft tissue conditions massage therapists find when dealing with complaints of hip pain. Piriformis syndrome is caused by a muscle in your buttocks that’s pressing on the sciatic nerve. The piriformis muscle acts as a bridge between the lower back and outer thighs. It helps you rotate your leg outward when you walk or run, but it can also become tight and cause pain if you sit for long periods with poor posture, like slouching at a desk or driving for hours on end. The resulting pressure on nearby nerves can cause symptoms such as numbness or tingling in your lower back, hips, leg(s), foot, and/or toes; pain when walking; difficulty bending forward at the waist; weakness in one or both legs; shooting pains down into thighs/knees are all symptoms of sciatic nerve impingement by the piriformis muscle.
You can perform a simple self-diagnostic test called the“figure four” to rule the piriformis in or out as the culprit. While seated, try to take the leg of the affected hip and cross the ankle over the knee of the opposite leg. If you find this difficult or painful, chances are your hip pain could be coming from a tight piriformis.
If you have pain in the side of your hip, it’s likely that you have a problem with your gluteus medius. This literal pain in the butt can be caused by trigger points in the muscle belly or inflammation of the tendon that attaches to the hip (GME tendonitis), or both. This painful condition occurs when there is stress on the tendons that attach to this muscle. The most common reason for stress on the gluteus medius tendon is weakness in the gluteal muscles from prolonged sitting or standing.
The symptoms of GME tendinopathy include pain on the side of your hip when standing on one leg and pain when sitting down or getting up from a chair.
Physical activities such as running, jumping, and walking uphill can also cause pain in the hip. If you have pain in one leg but not both legs, then it could be due to an imbalance between the two sides of your body.
Psoas tendonitis (PIT) is a common cause of groin pain and hip pain. The psoas muscle connects your spine to the inside of your thighbone at the head of the femur, and it can become irritated when you sit for long periods, walk with an unusual gait or have too much anterior pelvic tilt. These cause inflammation in the tendon that attaches to your hip joint. If you have psoas tendonitis, you may feel pain in the:
Similar to piriformis syndrome, PIT can cause trigger points to develop in your quadriceps (front of the thigh.) In many cases, the piriformis, gluteus medius, AND psoas are affected as a group, and you can develop trigger points in all three muscles.
Now that we’ve covered some of the less complex reasons for hip pain, let’s move on to some of the more complex ones.
Another common cause of hip pain is a condition called femoroacetabular impingement (FAI). This is when the ball-and-socket joint becomes too shallow or misshapen due to repetitive use of the legs over time. This causes the hip to rub against the bone when you move, which leads to pain and inflammation. Walking on hard surfaces such as tile or concrete floors, running on pavement, and standing in one place for long periods of time at a job such as a retail cashier can be contributors to FAI.
You may notice that one or both of your hips feel stiff or painful when walking or running. You might also experience hip pain at night when lying down flat on your back for more than 30 minutes at a time.
If you think that you may have FAI, it’s best to talk to an orthopedic surgeon about getting tested. And don’t worry; just because you may have FAI doesn’t mean you’re automatically headed for a hip replacement. The surgeon may recommend less invasive treatment, such as NSAIDs for pain management and physical therapy to strengthen muscles around the hip for support.
A labral tear occurs when the labrum, a piece of cartilage that helps hold your hip joint together, is torn. and because cartilage has little to no blood supply, it is extremely slow to heal. Even more so when you’re using the joint to move. Labral tears have different “grades” of severity, and depending on the grade, your hip pain may be more or less intense.
Labral tears can be caused by trauma, overuse, or degeneration. Symptoms include pain and clicking in the hip joint. Your doctor might also notice that you have a limited range of motion when they examine your hip. Your hip, like your shoulder, moves in several directions or planes of motion because it is not affixed to the hip socket. It free-floats with the help of cartilage that holds it in place, like a hammock.
Due to its location inside the hip socket, there is very little that can be done to repair this type of injury short of surgical intervention. If left untreated, this injury could result in other problems, such as osteoarthritis or arthritis within the joint itself. But similar to FAI, a good surgeon isn’t going to rush to a surgical solution. Depending on factors such as age, weight, and activity level, they may suggest you try more conservative treatments like PT.
Bursitis is a painful condition that causes inflammation in the bursa, a fluid-filled sac that cushions the bones, tendons, and muscles around the joints. The most common form of bursitis is Tendinosis – inflammation of tendons that connect muscle to bone.
Side note: There is a difference between tendonitis and tendinosis. The key is how long the condition has been a problem. If you’re experiencing tendon inflammation for more than 6 months, that tendonitis becomes tendonosis.
The pillowy cushion your bursa provides prevents the head of the femur from rubbing against the hip socket. Overuse, injury, or infection, which causes inflammation, causes there to be less room for the joint to move comfortably due to excess fluid in the bursa sac.
Osgood-Schlatter disease, more typical in children than adults, is a type of bursitis of the knee. Inflammation develops near the kneecap due to repeated stress on growth plates at the tip of the shinbone.
The hip is a complex structure, and determining the cause of hip pain can be difficult. Your doctor may suggest an x-ray or MRI to help identify the exact cause, and how to best treat it. Besides, massage therapists aren’t licensed to diagnose any injury or illness, so any diagnosis would have to come from someone with an MD after their name.
Massage therapy can be very effective in helping manage hip pain and discomfort due to muscle dysfunction. Massage has been shown to offer numerous benefits, such as loosening tight muscles and increasing blood flow, which can help reduce inflammation and improve range of motion. Additionally, massage can help manage chronic pain, improve sleep quality and reduce stress due to thinking about hip pain which is great; however, it has very limited effect on conditions like labral tears, bursitis, or nerve impingement from the joint.
For those who suffer from hip pain, the above information can be a helpful first step in terms of understanding what is going on with your body and how to treat it. After reading this post, if you want to explore how massage might be able to give you relief from your hip pain, feel free to book an appointment with me. I’m here to help!